White Doberman Facts
1. "White" Dobermans are not actually white. They are any shade of cream to Ivory, with WHITE markings and blue eyes.

2. They are not albinos in the truest sense of the word, although they do exhibit some albino characteristics. (A true albino in unpigmented.
albino; white Doberman look white because they have white pigment.)

3.Many white Dobermans do not have the proper Doberman temperament, due to excessive inbreeding done by those caring more
about producing dogs they can sell for a lot of money more than they care about the happiness and well-being of the person paying for the
dog, or about breeding for a Proper Doberman temperament (This can also be said for Black, Blue, Fawn and Red colors). Any breeder not
breeding for health and proper temperament should NOT be breeding dogs or any other animals. White Dobermans with proper temperaments do
exist with the right breeder that cares more about genetics and temperament then money.

4. White is considered an unaccepted color in the breed, and white Dobermans are not allowed to be shown in A.K.C. conformation. (There
are OTHER registries that do allow for whites to be shown in conformation!) The white Doberman can compete in any and all other A.K.C.
dog-events!!! (Including the Canine Good Citizenship Program, Obedience, Tracking, Schutzhund, Ring Sport, Flyball, Agility,
Temperament Testing Program, etc.)

4. White Dobermans have no more health problems then the black, red, blue or fawn. In fact Blue and Fawns have more skin problems then
whites due to the color dilution alopecia.

5. The D.P.C.A. claims white to be an undesirable color because these dogs were originally used as night guards and can be too easily seen
in the dark. Fawns are accepted, and some whites are actually darker than some fawns! Additionally, as "Working Dogs," Dobermans
are used for tracking and rescue work, and in these situations, there are definite benefits to being able to see them in the dark!
Many anti-white Doberman activists maintain that these dogs suffer severe temperament and health problems not seen in the Black,
red, blue or fawn members of the breed. In looking at this logically, rather than emotionally, it seems obvious to me
that the temperament failings of many white Dobermans have nothing to do with their color. The inbreeding done to keep the color
at the expense of the more important traits (that make this breed what it is) is what is at fault here! It is the fault of the breeders, and
not a function of the color of the dogs!

The D.P.C.A. said that "The original purpose of our breed was that of a working sentry dog to accompany their masters on their
rounds at night. White is readily seen, thereby destroying the element of surprise and impairing the dog's ability to do its work." This is a
fallacy. The job of a sentry is to sound an alarm. Regardless of the color of a sentry dog, the enemy would have to approach and overcome
both the man and the dog simultaneously in order to prevent the job of the sentry from being performed. Additionally, sentry duty is not just
a night time job. If anyone believes that camouflage of a sentry dog is of such importance that dark colored Dogs should be used at night,
then perhaps they would also believe that whites would be preferable in the daytime, especially in snowy conditions, and that fawn
Dobermans should be used in desert conditions, or on beaches.

D.P.C.A claimed that white Dobermans are photosensitive/photophobic because some squint in bright sunlight. Well, hey, all you blue-eyed
humans out there - Do you squint in bright sunlight? Does this cause you pain? These claims have been countered by "pro-white Doberman"
people by having their dogs CERF certified. CERF certification verifies normal vision and occular structure, as well as that no retinal disease
exists. It does not indicate a lack of photosensitivity/photophobia. However, a thorough eye exam from a qualified veterinary ophthalmologist
can prove that a dog is not photosensitive/photophobic, and appropriate veterinary documentation can be provided. There was, at one time,
concern that white Dobermans may be deaf, but BAER testing by "pro-whiters" has proven this not to be the case.

There are claims being made that White Dobermans are more prone to sunburn and skin cancer than Dobermans of other colors. My mom
had repeatedly requested and searched for DOCUMENTATION of this, but so far, she has been unable to locate any. Let me also point out
our Dobermans are indoor/outdoor, mostly outdoor in the summer as they LOVE sun tanning, and we have NEVER had a white with
sunburn, cancer, or any other sun or light related problem.

Many of the "Pro-white Doberman" people claim that the whites are healthier than Dobermans of other colors - not actually because of
their color, but because responsible breeders of white Dobermans are using Health as a basis for their breeding programs. They feel that
since they can’t breed for the show ring, they might as well breed for something that will make their dogs better and more desirable. The
D.P.C.A. (or at least some of their members) maintain(s) that since these dogs cannot be shown in conformation, why breed them? Less
than 2% of all purebred dogs are ever shown, but people keep them and love them as pets! People keep mixed breeds as well, and love
them - not because of their pedigree. MOST people do not show their dogs. Many, (if not most) breeds have unacceptable colors, but
only the white Dobermans are being met with unyielding bias and prejudice due to their color.

Why would anybody want a white Doberman? This, to me, is an absurd question! People want all sorts of things. If someone wants
a Doberman, they should be allowed to have one of any color they choose without being condemned for their choice! People own and
love many "unacceptable" colors of many different breeds of dogs! Some examples of this are white German Shepherd, Red Rottweiler,
Blue Weimaraner, Parti color or phantom Poodles, Color-headed Shelties, Boston or Merle Great Danes, and many, many others.
People want them. That’s what matters, so it is up to the breeders to produce GOOD ones - Healthy, stable White Dobermans.
Here are some FACTS about these dogs that I don’t think anyone will dispute
Some White and White Factored Title Holders
(There are many many more I am just listing a few)
Owned by Candy Cornett

Owned by Jody Franklin

Owned by Carol Bamberger

NKC - CH of CH
Owned by Brigitte Block

Weight Pulling
Ivory pulled 2,200 LB, Ivory weighed 69 LB
Owned by Randy Schroeder and Brigitte Block




The Studies sent to AKC
Years ago, almost a quarter of a century ago, in fact, the DPCA sent to the AKC delegates a series of "studies" done by "experts" in the
fields of Genetics, Physiology, Pathology and Veterinary Medicine in an attempt to prove white Dobermans to be albinos.

They claim success in this endeavor and claim white Dobermans to be inferior due to albinism. The point of this is to definitively prove that
they have failed in this endeavor!

The general public considers an albino to be the classic red-eyed, non-pigmented individual. This is partially true and partially incorrect.
The fact of the matter is that the term "albinism" can be used to describe all animals whose appearance is a certain way due to genes located
at the ‘c’ locus of the chromosome. The gene causing a red-eyed non-pigmented individual has been mapped at the ‘c’ locus of the
chromosome. However, many other genes, primarily related to the distribution of pigment, also occur at the ‘c’ locus. The ‘c’ locus is so
named because alleles in the "c series" occur there. Because the allele for true albinism is in the ‘c series’, this has also been called the
‘albino series’. Remember, though, other alleles occur there as well.

The DPCA, in a rather poor attempt to support their claim of white Dobermans being inferior, calls them "tyrosinase positive" albinos.
This is misleading. This is intentional.

Tyrosinase is an enzyme nessesary for the formation of pigment. It is typically associated with the formation of the pigment melanin.
However, melanin is only one of several pigments causing ‘color’ in hair. While melanin is the black pigment found in black dogs (and
other black mammals), eumelanin is the pigment responsible for the brown, red and tan coat and markings shades, phaeomelanin for
yellows and there are others. White Dobermans DO have pigment. The DPCA refers to them as "tyrosinase positive albinos" (or
"Ty-pos" albinos) in a feeble attempt to ‘label’ them as albinos despite the FACT that they have both tyrosinase AND pigment.

Because the canine genome has not yet been fully mapped, they do not KNOW where the gene causing white is found on the chromosome,
yet they continue to call them ‘partial albinos’. When people ask me, as an owner and breeder of black, red, blue, fawn and white
Dobermans, if these dogs are really partial albinos, I tell them the honest truth - The point that matters is that these dogs show NONE
of the health problems described as associated with any of the classic red-eyed white non-pigmented albino individuals. Whether or not
they are partial albinos is irrelevant so long as they have none of the medical issues affecting true albinos, which they do not. In addition,
there are no unique medical problems with white Dobermans. All 5 colors have the same health concerns.

The chinchilla gene is believed to occur at the ‘c’ locus, as is the gene causing "siamese" (or "himilayan") markings.

I will use these 2 as examples:
First, a chinchilla has a banded hair shaft. When homozygous for this gene (containing 2 copies, in this case of this recessive), the effect
is different in short haired then from long haired animals. In short haired animals, the result is the removal of much of the phaeomelanin
pigment with only a slight effect on black pigment, causing bands of black, silver-gray and white all on the same hair. In long-haired
animals, some of the melanin is "reduced" causing a gray-blue-smoky appearance with a black "overlay".

The ‘Himalayan’ or ‘Siamese’ gene causes dark extremities as seen in Himalayan and Californian rabbits, shaded Netherland Dwarf
rabbits and Siamese Cats. The effect in the homozygous animal is temperature-dependent eumelanin formation resulting in the formation
of more pigmentation on the extremities, i.e., ears, nose, feet, tail.
Heart of the Matter
Are these animals (Chinchilla/Salt & Pepper Schnauzers, Siamese/Himalayan cats and/or rabbits) generally considered to be albinos? The
answer is NO. Perhaps you could call them partial albinos or tyrosinase positive albinos, but would that ‘label’ make them less desirable as
pets then the solid, spotted, mottled, brindle, patched, striped or otherwise colored, marked and/or patterned animals of the same breed
and/or species? Again, the answer is No.

IF the gene for white in Doberman does in fact occur at the ‘c’ locus of the chromosome, which has NOT been definitively determined one
way or the other, so what?

Following are selected (by the DPCA) portions of the "research" contracted by the DPCA to prove their point. It is what was submitted
by the DPCA to the AKC in an attempt to persuade the AKC into allowing whites and their relatives a Restricted (Limited) registration
only. That would mean that none of their offspring could ever be AKC registered and the restricted individuals themselves would be
ineligible for conformation showing. This was to be applied to both white and white-factored Doberman as well as "possibly"
white-factored Doberman.

(At this time, all whites, white-factored and possibly white-factored are "labeled" with a "Z" in their registration number, as well as several
that we know NOT to be white-factored)

In a sincere effort to bring to light the FALLACY of the DPCA report, I have shown
IN BLUE some of the major problems with their premises.

 Scientific Summery
                                    Beginning of DPCA Study
Our problem may someday be your problem. Please help us provide all parent clubs with their constitutional right to protect their breed.
The Restricted Registration Proposal serves us all.

In 1979, the owner of a Doberman bitch sent the blue slip to AKC listing her color as ALBINO. AKC returned the blue slip stating ALBINO
was NOT a color. The owner then submitted photographs to the AKC committee which returned the opinion the bitch’s color was white
consequently the first ALBINO Doberman was registered. EVEN if an owner applies for registration as an ALBINO, AKC simply
changes the color to white and registers the dog. Registrations are now increasing exponentially.
*Note; a picture of a light cream
colored dog will appear white even in a color photograph.

AKC defines;
White as another acceptable color for a Doberman.

Veterinary pathologists and geneticists define;
White Doberman as ALBINO, different from breeds we tend to accept as normal white.
*This is a misleading and FALSE statement
as you will see as you read the statements of the Veterinary pathologists and geneticists the D.P.C.A. has quoted in this report.

Webster’s Third New World Dictionary defines;
ALBINO - Any organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation as a human being or other animal affected with albinism and typically having
a milky or translucent skin, white or nearly colorless hair, and eyes with a pink or blue iris and a deep red pupil.

ALBINISM - 1.) The state or quality of being ALBINO; 2.) The inability to produce pigment, a recessive genetic condition of wide
occurrence, esp. in coat, skin and eye color of mammals.

M. Diane Gerrard, BS, Research Assistant
Jeff Hogans DVM, Salinas, California
Mark Ladd Ph.D., (Geneticist) University of Surrey, England
George Pagett DVM, Professor of Veterinary Pathology, Michigan State University
Charles Parshall, DVM, ACVO, The Ohio State University
Donald Patterson, DVM, D.Sc., ACVIM (Geneticist), University of Pennsylvania
D. J. Priur, DVM, Professor of Pathology, Washington State University
John Paul Scott, Ph.D., (Geneticist), Bowling Green State University
Erwin Small, DVM, MS, ACVD, ACVIM, University of Illinois
DVM = Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
MS = Master of Science
PhD = Doctor of Philosophy
ACVD = American Collage of Veterinary Dermatology (Specialty)
ACVIM = American Collage of Veterinary Internal Medicine (Specialty)
ACVO = American Collage of Veterinary Ophthalmology (Specialty)

The DPCA conferred with all of the above either as conductors of the research or as consultants. Test litters were bred, raised
and evaluated by DPCA members Judy Doniere and Nancy Heitzman under the direction of the afore mentioned panel of experts.

Nancy Heitzman and Judy Doniere: 2 litters yielded 17 live black and rust pups that were normal until 5 -10 months old, then all but 2 from
each litter were euthanized for attacking family members, especially children. All were photophobic and many were considered fear biters.
**But they were all black and rust! How does this in any prove anything about white Doberman, good or bad?  
Was the white parent a
photophobic fear-biter or the non-white parent that was also non-white-factored because at least one parent had to be non-white and was
also non-white-factored or there would have been some white puppies. Did they breed a white at all? Assuming they did, which we do not
know from this report, what did they breed it to? One of their champions? Some unadoptable, fear-biting, dog-pound rejects? Your guess
would be as good as mine.

Dr. Parshall: (referral report) "No significant pigment on lids or ocular structure; iris-white/blue; fundus-no pigment but has a prominent
yellow-green tapetum."
*Notice there is no reference to the color of the pupil. See "Webster’s" definition of albino above.

Dr. Patterson: "My own guess is that the gene is a member of the C locus series of alleles. Included in this series in a number of animals is
the ALBINO allele."
*Guess? Included in this series? So, being at the C locus does not necessarily mean albino, right? Not a very scientific
statement. Merely an OPINION.

Dr. Scott: (initial visual assessment of puppies) "the whites appear normal except for photophobia." *Which puppies are these? I thought
they wound up with 17 black and rust puppies. Where did the whites come in? Is there more to this research then the DPCA is telling us?
Actually, there is. Dr. Scott went to the Padula’s kennel to examine their dogs first hand. What the report did NOT state was that all of the
dogs were kept confined in a 50 x 50 ft building with no windows. The electric lights were only used when the dogs were being cared for or
shown to people, purchasers of and visitors to the Padula’s dogs. Dr. Scott has confirmed this as have purchasers of dogs from the Padulas.
Purchasers have reported that after a few days of normal exposure to light, the photo sensitivity disappeared. I have seen the same in a
white rescue that was originally purported to be blind, then as "visually handicapped". He was kept in a crate in a basement w/ minimal
exposure to light but after a few days with me in a normal situation, his eyesight was just fine.

(1981 report to DPCA) "Photophobia would constitute somewhat of a handicap to a working dog."

(Nov. 1994, AKC Gazette) "Something must be done. I realize that most breeders are responsible, selecting strains that seem good.
But once an undesirable trait enters a breed, it’s not an easy thing to eliminate."
*Have we determined this to be a reference to white as
an undesirable trait or is it merely a generalization to make a point? Perhaps it refers to photophobia? Has it been determined that
photophobia is unique to white Doberman? I don’t think so. However, in the case of a photophobic white (or of any color, for that matter),
is that genetic or environmental?
In loving memory
Brigitte Block
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