|Doberman Pinschers are VWD Type I
Von Willebrand's disease has been identified in a wide range of canine breeds, and is the most common of the inherited bleeding disorders. As
with humans, there are three classifications of this disease, Types I, II, and III. These are based on the concentration and nature of plasma vWF.
Type I vWD is characterized by abnormally low concentrations of structurally normal vWF, and tends to be a milder and more variable form.
Type II vWD is characterized by structurally abnormal vWF, which impedes function and results in severe bleeding in affected animals. Type
III vWD is found in animals that have essentially no plasma vWF. The disease has been reported in many breeds of dog, and is generally
diagnosed by an ELISA test for plasma vWF following a bleeding event.
Five mutations have been identified that cause vWD in canines. Direct DNA tests have been developed for all five of these mutations that allow
unambiguous delineation of the genetic status of the animal, which is not always possible with the ELISA test due to temporal variations in the
amount of circulating vWF. These five mutations are responsible for the vast majority of vWD in at least the fifteen breeds discussed in this
poster, and probably others, which have yet to be tested. All five may be classified as recessively inherited resulting in clear, carrier, or
While carriers do exhibit a reduction in the amount of plasma vWF, it is not enough to make them symptomatic. It should be noted that
affected status in the case of these tests means the animal carries two copies of the mutant allele, not necessarily that the disease is manifest.
In the case of the severe Type II and III diseases any "affected" animal will almost certainly experience a severe bleeding incident. In the case
of the milder and more variable Type I disease, "affected" animals are obviously at risk, but may or may not have a severe bleeding incident.
|Von Willebrand's Disease (vWD)
|Ideal Breeding Pair - Puppies will not have the disease gene (neither as Carrier nor as Affected).
|Breeding Is Safe - No Affected puppies will be produced. However, some or all puppies will be Carriers. Accordingly,
it is recommended that Carrier dogs which are desirable for breeding be bred with Clear dogs in the future, which will
produce 50% carrier and 50% clear animals, to further reduce the disease gene frequency. These offspring should be
tested, if you plan to keep for breeding.
|Use Caution When Breeding - Some puppies will be Carriers, some puppies will be Clear and some puppies will be
affected. Although this is not my favorite breeding any offspring that is kept for breeding should be tested and
only clear and carriers should be kept for breeding.
|Breeding Not Recommended - All puppies will be genetically and medically affected.
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